Cost Benefit Analysis
Benefit-Cost Analysis (BCA) is the method by which the future benefits of a hazard mitigation project are determined and compared to its costs. The end result is a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), which is calculated by a project’s total benefits divided by its total costs. The BCR is a numerical expression of the “cost-effectiveness” of a project. A project is considered to be cost effective when the BCR is 1.0 or greater, indicating the benefits of a prospective hazard mitigation project are sufficient to justify the costs.
FEMA requires a BCA to validate cost effectiveness of proposed hazard mitigation projects prior to funding. There are two drivers behind this requirement: (1) the Office of Management and Budget’s (OMB) Circular A-94 Revised, “Guidelines and Discount Rates for Benefit-Cost Analysis of Federal Programs” and (2) the Stafford Act.
The goal of Circular A-94 is to promote efficient resource allocation through well-informed decision-making by the Federal Government. FEMA’s BCA Toolkit has been developed to meet the guidelines published in Circular A-94.
The Stafford Act authorizes the President to establish a program to provide technical and financial assistance to state and local governments to assist in the implementation of hazard mitigation measures that are cost effective and designed to substantially reduce injuries, loss of life, hardship, or the risk of future damage and destruction of property.
For more information refer to the following FEMA link: https://www.fema.gov/benefit-cost-analysis